Copernicus to the Big Bang -

Einstein to the Big Bang

http://edu-observatory.org/olli/C2BB/Week4.html

Issac Newton (1642-1727), English mathematician and physicist, considered the greatest single influence on theoretical physics until Einstein. In Principia Mathematica (1687), he gave a mathematical description of the laws of mechanics and gravitation and applied these to planetary motion. Opticks (1704) records his optical experiments and theories, including the discovery that white light is made up of a mixture of colors. His work in mathematics included the binomial theorem and differential calculus. How two scientists built a bridge between Newton and Einstein https://aeon.co/videos/how-two-scientists-built-a-bridge-between-newton-and-einstein-in-empty-spaces https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NMgcX8UNIGY 5+ min Gravity retained a somewhat mystifying quality, even after the Newtonian revolution: how could one object affect another from great distances? The same could be said about light, heat and magnetism, which all seemed to jump through empty space. It wasn't until the 19th century that the scientists Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell made sense of these phenomena by developing electromagnetic field theory. With Faraday conceiving of electromagnetic fields and Maxwell expressing them with mathematics, the duo revolutionised physics by demonstrating how seemingly empty space isn't so empty. Poincare & Einstein In his 1902 book "Science and Hypothesis", the mathematical physicist Henri Poincare identified three fundamental yet unresolved problems [in physics]. One problem concerned the mysterious way ultraviolet light ejects electrons from the surface of a metal; the second problem was the zig-zagging perpetual motion of pollen particles suspended in a liquid; the third problem was the failure of experiments to detect Earth's motion through the aether. In 1904, Einstein read Poincare's book. He had also been thinking about these problems, independently of Poincare. For Einstein, they were clearly part of God's thoughts. One year later, in 1905, he solved all three.Five Papers That Shook The Worldby Matthew Chalmers (2005) https://physicsworld.com/a/five-papers-that-shook-the-world/ Episode 25: From Kepler To Einstein - The Mechanical Universe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkFD9ZPM3Jg 28:30 BBC: Albert Einstein Documentary HD 1h 30m https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_yk45m4E3M Predictions of Einstein's General Relativity http://edu-observatory.org/olli/GR/Week2.html http://edu-observatory.org/olli/GR/Week3.html Tests of Big Bang Cosmology http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests.html http://edu-observatory.org/olli/tobbc/index.html Gravitational Waves: A New Era of Astronomy Begins http://edu-observatory.org/olli/Lecture.20180417/index.html https://www.ligo.caltech.eduSelections from The Principle of Relativityby Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking Running Press, December 2004 ISBN-10: 0762420235 https://www.amazon.com/Selections-Principle-Relativity-Shoulders-Giants/dp/0762420235 Einstein's essay, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, introduces his famous "principle of relativity," one of the twentieth century's most revolutionary concepts. In his introduction to this seminal work, the renowned physicist Stephen Hawking cuts through Einstein's mathematical complexities to explain this revolutionary concept in language that excites and informs the reader. This book features selections from a translation of the original essay, The Principle of Relativity, as well as an insightful biography of Einstein and Hawking's informative summary. sam.wormley@gmail.com