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Why did Texans respond to what happened at Goliad with outrage? According to the Handbook of Texas Online: “The execution of James W. Fannin, Jr.’s, command in the Goliad Massacre was not without precedent, however, and Mexican president and general Antonio López de Santa Anna, who ultimately ordered the exterminations, was operating within Mexican law.”, And: “The impact of the Goliad Massacre was crucial. About a mile away from Goliad, the Mexican soldiers opened fire on the prisoners. March 27, 1836 during the Texas Revolution, the Goliad massacre happened.. Being unarmed, they did not fall under the literal terms of the decree, and the Mexican officers took great pains to follow the law to the letter--also sparing the physicians in Fannin's command who were presumed non-combatants. The prisoners were quartered at the Presidio La Bahia near Goliad. Battle of Goliad. In 1936, money was raised to build a pink granite monument in celebration of the Texas Centennial. Find mugshots and inmate photos. Under Santa Anna’s urging, the Mexican Congress passed the decree of Dec. 30, 1835, directing that every foreigner captured in battle against the Mexican government be tried as pirates and shot. They may have been added to the prisoners at Goliad and killed with Fannin on March 27. At dawn on Palm Sunday, March 27, the Mexican soldiers formed the unwounded Texan prisoners into three groups and marched them in three different directions. Santa Anna replied by ordering immediate execution of the prisoners, in two separate letters on consecutive days. Goliad County Jail is located in Goliad County and is the main correctional facility for the region. He also sent a direct order to the head officer at Goliad, Col. Jose Nicolas de la Portilla, to execute the prisoners. King got out of the church, and after a skirmish with the Mexicans, retreated on the direct road to Goliad. We've been to the old fort that was near the… Citing a recently passed law that all foreigners taken under arms would be treated as pirates and executed, Santa Anna sent orders to execute the Goliad prisoners. Portilla received Santa Anna’s orders on March 26. La Bahía lay halfway between the only other large garrison of Mexican soldiers and the then-important Texas port of Copano. About one half to three-quarters of a mile from La Bahia, the Mexican soldiers halted, turned on the prisoners, and fired upon them at close range. When Mexico transitioned to a centralized government in 1835, supporters of federalism took up arms. You'll see all the posts for that time period. General Urrea was an honorable man but he had no choice but to obey the direct command of Santa Anna. Knowing the prisoners' probable fate, General Urrea departed Goliad, leaving command to Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla, and later writing to Santa Anna to ask for clemency for the Texians. This excerpt from an 1847. So Newton Wasrzecha "bristles" at the thought that the 445 illegal freebooters who were legally executed at Goliad are now being classified as executions. mWhy is this even subject to debate? The Battle of Goliad was the second skirmish of the Texas Revolution. After the Battle of Moscow and the retreat of the German forces the number of prisoners in the Soviet prisoner of war camps rose to 120,000 by early 1942. The Battle of Goliad on October 10th, 1835 was the second skirmish in the Texan Revolution. Subsequently, on orders from President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, they were brutally slaughtered on Palm Sunday, March 27, 1836. As such, they fell squarely within the terms of the "Tornel Decree", which branded as pirates only armed foreigners captured under such circumstances, in full accordance with international law. There were somewhere between three and four hundred of them, which included all of the men captured under Fannin as well as some others that had been taken previously. The Texans thought they would likely be set free in a few weeks. The wounded prisoners, including Colonel Fannin, were returned to Goliad over the next two days. Santa Anna's orders were followed. Prisoners were required to wear color-coded triangles on their jackets so that the guards and officers of the camps could easily identify each person's background and pit the different groups against each other. Do you know someone incarcerated at Goliad County Jail? We heard of the surrender and killing of King and his men, and the retreat of Colonel Ward in the direction above mentioned, and were in daily expectation of Ward's command arriving at Goliad. The Mexicans took the Texians back to Goliad, where they were held as prisoners at Fort Defiance (Presidio La Bahia). The “Angel of Goliad,” Francita Alavez and Col. Francisco Garay, intervened to save 20 more. On March 27, the prisoners were rounded up and marched out of the fort at Goliad. The Texians were marched back to Goliad and held as prisoners at Fort Defiance, each believing that they were going to be set free in a matter of weeks. The prisoners were marched back to Goliad where they were held for a week. PRESIDENT TRUMP PREPARING TO SEND HIGH-RANKING U.S. CITIZENS TO DETENTION CAMP: Originally intended to be an “island outside the law” where terrorism suspects could be detained without process and interrogated without restraint, the prison and military commissions at Guantánamo Bay are catastrophic failures. He and his men were taken prisoners, tied together with rawhide, and shot immediately. Today marks the 182nd anniversary of the mass execution of 342 Texan revolutionary army prisoners at Goliad. See what happened to Col. Fannin's watch. … Santa Anna's orders were followed. In the early-morning hours of October 9, 1835, Texas settlers attacked the Mexican Army soldiers garrisoned at Presidio La Bahía, a fort near the Mexican Texas settlement of Goliad. What was the significance of the difference in the number of casualties for the opposing forces at the Alamo? The Republic of Texas - The Texas Revolution The Goliad Massacre. Sir: An 1847 article, during the American-Mexican War can hardly be realiable primary data, because it is tainted. Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Live updates from your Congressional delegation. Following a one-sided battle on the prairie near Coleto Creek, 250 mostly American prisoners were marched back to the presidio at Goliad where they were joined by more than 200 others. Thus, all of Fannin's command Until this episode Santa Anna’s reputation had been that of a cunning and crafty man, rather than a cruel one. On Palm Sunday, the 27th of March, the prisoners were divided … The Texas cause was dependent on the material aid and sympathy of the United States. Victor M. Carrera, This website uses cookies for functionality, analytics and advertising purposes as described in our, A tribute to Allen F. Wolfe - K/143 - POW / MIA - Battle of Montelimar, Request for Information: WWII 141st Infantry Regiment 36th Division, Company A. The Goliad Campaign was the 1836 Mexican offensive to retake the Texas Gulf Coast during the Texas Revolution. The prisoners who survived the first fire were killed by bullets, bayonet or lance. Had this not been a legal execution, and instead a bloodthisty "massacre", these individuals would not have been segregated and allowed to live. In about 1858, Goliad merchant George von Dohlen marked the grave site with a pile of rocks. Of the prisoners at Goliad, 342 were killed while 28 successfully escaped the firing squads. At home and around the world, Guantánamo has become a symbol of … In Guadalupe Victoria, Urrea wrote a letter to Santa Anna recommending clemency for the prisoners. The prisoners were quartered at the Presidio La Bahia near Goliad… This page tells you information about everything a person needs to know about Goliad County Jailsuch as the following: How to locate an inmate at Goliad County Jail. When the Goliad prisoners were taken, Texas had no other army in the field[…], and the newly constituted ad interim government seemed incapable of forming one. Facts can be stubborn things. Meanwhile, about 40 wounded Texans, including Fannin, were executed within La Bahia. About 230 or 240 uninjured or slightly injured Texans were marched to Goliad and imprisoned at Nuestra Senora de Loreta Presidio La Bahia, with about 50 wounded Texans, including Fannin, arriving in Goliad over the next two days. General Urrea departed Goliad, leaving command to Colonel José Nicolás de la Portilla. Texan revolutionaries organized into a militia that... See full answer below. Common criminals wore green. On March 26, 1836, 19:00, Portilla receiv… On March 27th General Santa Anna abrogated the agreement and ordered the execution of the prisoners. Texans March on Goliad [Happened After: Battle of Gonzales] The developing Texas Army at Gonzales determined to march for Bexar on the 12th of October, 1835, with a force of five hundred men, together with the notable six-pounder, from the battle of Gonzales.On that day they crossed the Guadalupe, and encamped on its western bank. On this date in 1836, some 342 Texan soldiers were executed by the Mexican army in what would be known as the Goliad Massacre. The prisoners were escorted back to Goliad as prisoners. Although Urrea probably had good intentions, Santa Anna over-ruled him and commanded that the prisoners be slaughtered. The bodies of the executed men were burned and left unburied, until June 3, 1836, when Gen. Thomas Rusk’s soldiers passed through Goliad, gathered the remains and buried them with military honors. Santa Anna, distrustful of Urrea, sent orders to execute the captives directly to the commander of the small garrison at Goliad, effectively bypassing the general. Goliad Massacre Video Details 360-degree video filmed within and around the Presidio La Bahía and Fannin Battleground State Historic Site is intended to help viewers gain a deeper understanding of the tragic story that played an important role in the 1836 march toward Texas independence. Almost all of the men in Fannin's command were US citizens captured under arms on Mexican territory, following a pitched battle with Mexican government forces, at a time when the US was not at war with Mexico. On October 9, 1835, a group of Texians attacked the presidio in Goliad, defeated the Mexican garrison and took control of the fort. Texans were angered that prisoners taken in battle were put to death. Urrea detained about twenty of Ward's men to build boats at Guadalupe Victoria, and Señora Alavez intervened with her husband, Col. Telesforo Alavez, whom Urrea left in charge of this village, to spare their lives as well; they afterward escaped. A young German by the name of Hermann Ehrenberg was in the Texas army and was one of the few that escaped the Goliad massacre. On March 27, 1836, the prisoners were divided into three groups and marched to separate locations outside the community. It was a battle that preceded its more famous cousin, the one where the war for Texas independence took a turn for the worst. Urrea wrote to Santa Anna to ask for clemency for the Texians. It is undisputed that eighty or so US volunteers under the command of William Miller (the "Nashville Batallion"), who were surprised and captured unarmed at Copano Bay on March 22, 1836 and imprisoned with Fannin's men, were spared. Mexican Pres. Portilla decided that he had to obey Santa Anna’s orders. But Portilla’s volleys at Goliad, together with the fall of the Alamo, branded both Santa Anna and the Mexican people with a reputation for cruelty and aroused the fury of the people of Texas, the United States, and even Great Britain and France, thus considerably promoting the success of the Texas Revolution.”. When? The Texans surrendered their arms and the uninjured and slightly wounded were marched back to Goliad and imprisoned in the chapel of the Presidio La Bahia. In this case, the Texans were outnumbered but heavily armed, and Fannin agreed to surrender only after obtaining personal assurance from Urrea of his confidence that Santa Anna would agree to return the Texans to the United States alive. It is undisputed that Miller and his command had actually come with the intent to wage war against Mexico. In total, 28 Texans managed to escape the firing squads. Mexican forces under General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna continued to sweep across Texas toward Fort Defiance, the presidio in Goliad that had been seized by the rebels in October 1835 at the onset of the war for independence. On the order of Santa Anna which "damaged [his] international reputation and deepened sympathy for the revolution in the United States," according to the Texas State Historical Association. Spohn was retained a prisoner with the Copano detachment, under Major Miller, Captain Israel, and Mr. Burton, who had been sent with their companies to Goliad. On Palm Sunday, the 27th of March, the prisoners were divided into three groups, marched onto open prairie, and shot. He and his men were taken prisoners, tied together with rawhide, and immediately shot. When Santa Anna invaded Texas I 1836, he gave to Urrea the command of a brigade; and throughout the campaign Urrea conducted himself to the perfect satisfaction of his chief, but scarcely to that of the friends of humanity-for it was he who presided at the execution of the prisoners taken at Goliad. In April, 1885, a memorial was erected in the City of Goliad. The first declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas was signed here on December 20, 1835. A discussion area for Texas history enthusiasts, Moderators:AustinAl, indybaby, Don Guillermo. and Gen. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna began a policy of executing all foreigners captured in battle when 28 prisoners from an attack on Tampico were tried and convicted as pirates, and shot on Dec. 14, 1835. Mexican troops under the command of General José de Urrea defeated rebellious immigrants to the Mexican province of Texas, known as Texians, in a series of clashes in February and March. Two hours later he received orders from Urrea instructing him to treat the prisoners humanely. Urrea … Source: The Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association. Texas State Library and Archives CommissionThe Goliad Massacre occurred on March 27, 1836. The German 6th Army surrendered in the Battle of Stalingrad, 91,000 of the survivors became prisoners of war raising the number to 170,000 in early 1943. Fannin's Forces Executed at Goliad on March 27, 1836 When the Mexican general reported to Santa Anna that he was holding the San Patricio prisoners, Santa Anna ordered Urrea to comply with the decree of December 30. Under a decree passed by the Mexican Congress on December 30 of the previous year, armed foreigners taken in combat were to be treated as pirates and executed. Ironically, rather than serving to crush the Texas rebellion, the Goliad Massacre helped inspire and unify the Texans. They told him that like their own, in the end, his case was desperate; and that to escape, any means he might employ were justifiable. The Matamoros Expedition was a planned 1836 invasion of the Mexican port town of Matamoros by rebellious Texians.As the Mexican government transitioned from federalism to a centralized government in 1835, many federalists offered armed opposition. Had Fannin’s and Miller’s men been dumped on the wharves at New Orleans penniless, homesick, humiliated, and distressed, and each with his separate tale of Texas mismanagement and incompetence, Texas prestige in the United States would most likely have fallen, along with sources of help. An additional 20 were saved for use as doctors, interpreters, and orderlies through the intercession of Francita Alvarez (The Angel of Goliad). On March 20, 1836, James W. Fannin and his men surrendered to the forces of Gen. Jose de Urrea following the Battle of Coleto. Browse previous blog posts by month and year of entry. I wonder whether General Jose Manuel Urrea felt regret for his part in the massacre? There was an official war going on with Mexico, hence, the anti-Mexican sentiment in it, and I don't have to wonder why. As the ashes of the Alamo continued to smolder, Sam Houston feared another disaster could befall his Texas Army. Houston ordered Colonel James W. Fannin to evacuate his 400-man force from Goliad a… The Goliad Massacre occurred on March 27, 1836. Political prisoners, such as Communists, Socialists, and trade unionists wore red triangles. On March 25, about 80 Texan prisoners from the battle of Refugio joined the prisoners in Goliad. would be treated as pirates and executed, Santa Anna sent orders to execute the Goliad prisoners. Urrea wrote in his diary that he "...wished to elude these orders as far as possible without compromising my personal responsibility." In September, Texians began … The monument was dedicated at the grave site on June 4, 1938. 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